Aquaculture continues to gain immensely from an increasing application of genetics and biotechnological tools, particularly in characterizing the wild genetic diversity of fish stocks, and genetic improvement of cultured stocks. However, such applications are still lagging behind agriculture and livestock sectors as most of the cultured fish are still genetically similar to their wild counterparts. More emphasis has to be given to domestication of the stocks with high performance traits and for adopting appropriate broodstock management strategies to overcome the negative effects of inbreeding and unintentional selection. This course is aimed to provide students with the basic concepts of applied genetics and selective breeding with emphasis on sustainable management of fish stocks, and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture.